During the Cold War, the real meaning of Swedish neutrality and of the capability of Sweden’s armed forces played a significant role in any predictions of how a future military conflict would develop in northern Europe. The territory of this non-aligned country covered half the demarcation line between NATO and the Warsaw Pact in Europe, and it spent significant sums on defence. It had undeniable ties to the West, but managed to stay out of two earlier world wars and signalled a firm determination to stay out of a third one. How successful were the Swedes in convincing the surrounding world? What was the perception of Swedish defence and security policy during the Cold War in the two Super Powers and among Sweden’s neighbours? In this volume, experts from Russia, the US, Norway, Finland and Denmark discuss this subject. Their contributions are commented upon by Swedish scholars.